IMPROVEMENT OF THE AUTOMATED GRAIN DRYING SYSTEM WITHOUT CHANGING
Ключові слова:automated system, bunker, drying chamber, grain drying, controller, Simantic S7-300
The article discusses the improvements in the automated system for drying grain crops based on a multi-chamber bunker. A new solution is proposed based on replacing the bunker with a single-chamber one and developing an automated control system based on a controller. Thanks to this, a significant increase in the productivity and reliability of the system is achieved, and the versatility of its adjustment in relation to various types of grain products. It is noted that multi-chamber drying chambers have a number of limitations in achieving the required level of unification and flexibility required by modern industries. Thus, multi-chamber grain drying systems for the production of malt require significant technical changes if it is necessary to change the type of grain or even the crop during processing. Single-chamber systems for drying a grain product turn out to be more flexible in relation to multi-chamber ones, but at the same time they require significant improvements in control systems, for example, by introducing microprocessor technology. This modernization of a single-chamber automated grain drying system without mixing was carried out using a programmable modular microcontroller Simantic S7-300. When developing the software, its Step 7 modular structure was taken into account, which made it possible to carry out individual software settings of the control algorithm for the required type of grain crop. The scheme of an automated drying chamber without mixing provides for the flow of grain along with water through a pipeline into the hopper, where it is evenly mixed. The grain level in the tank is constantly regulated, while the water is drained through the pipeline at this time. After filling the container and evenly distributing the grain, the gas generator is turned on. The gas supply process is controlled by valves on the pipelines, the pressure in which is regulated according to the indications of the primary converters installed at characteristic points. Hot air from the heat generator is supplied to the hopper by a fan, and passing through the grain layer by an exhaust fan is carried out. The ability to blow the grain layer with hot air using a fan allows the process to proceed without stirring. The degree of grain readiness during the drying process is determined by the temperature difference between dry and moist air, before and after the grain layer, respectively. The microcontroller software is built in such a way that it is possible to change the control parameters of the grain processing mode at each separate stage independently and, accordingly, quickly adjust the control system when changing the assortment.
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